London, Sage, 2007

Kroger defines identity in its complex dimensions based on biological and psychological change, and in a developmental fashion which considers early formation in childhood, then progress towards the crucial age of differentiation which is adulescence, and on to early, middle and late adulthood.

With regard to individuation, important components of identity are both what remains and what changes from adulescence to adulthood.

The social context has consequences on identity creation - influential are in particular family, work, class and different historical eras.

The main theoretical reference is E.H. Erikson with his concept of the life cycle [1], and his view that identity is shaped by three major aspects: "one's biological characteristics; one's own unique psychologycal needs, interests and defenses; and the cultural milieu in which one resides" (p. 8).

The book ends with a statement by a nineteen year old:

"I guess my first identity problem is just knowing who I am, and the second, becoming who I am, wherever and however that will change across my own lifetime" (p. 247).

[1] E.H. Erikson, THE LYFE CYCLE COMPLETED, New York, Norton, 1982 (revised 1997).

[Roberto Bertoni]